August of 1917 Japan was ready to reap her benefits of imperialism and she had her eyes on China. The exchange of the Lansing -Ishii Notes between the U.S. and Japan, this agreement granted territorial superiority of China to Japan. Japan interest in China mostly economic. The Japanese population was growing, cities were crowded, and consumer goods were scares and its standard of living extremely low. A major earthquake also adds to Japans plight. Japan was a small island limited in natural resources and inhabitable space. The Japanese saw the turmoil in China as an opportunity to divide conquer and move in.
Japan had been recognized as one of the Big Five powers and held a seat on the Council of the League of Nations. Japan had secured economic success during WWI. Japan had large textile factories, submarines, and fleets.
At the Washington Naval Conference Japan was angered at its ratio of ships. It blamed the outcome on the U.S. Japan did however agree to withdraw from Shantung, and from Siberia.
The Great Depression ate away at Japans economic power unable to export silk, agricultural goods and limited goods were being imported. Japan was looking to plant its people on foreign soil, Chinas soil. Japan felt it was treated unfair by the U.S. and Great Britain and eventually signed the Anti- Comintern Pact in 1937with Germany. Russia had already begin planting its Communist ideas in China, Japan needed an ally. By 1940 the United States had banned exports to Japan such as scrape metal and fuel. Japan leaders were worried they had been using reserves. Japan invaded Dutch Indonesia and only received a small amount of fuel. Japan asks all British and American s to leave. On Dec 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. The Pacific War could have been avoided if Japan and the United States had more open lines of communication. Japan made a lot of its foreign policy decision after the Washington Naval Conference that didn’t improve her standing with United States or Britain.
Mao tse-deng was leader and revolutionary strategist of the Chinese Communist revolution. Growing up Mao had witnessed first hand experience of peasant mistreatment. Mao was a leader who was in touch with the people. His career begins in 1921 with the founding of the Chinese Communist Party, which met in Shanghai. The Party began with 50 members and by 1989 had risen to 48,000,000. Mao would use communist tactics, such as propaganda to organize peasant rebellion.
During the Nationalist decade Mao was forced to escape from the KMT by hiding in the Jingang Mountains, where he and other leader developed guerilla tactics. After escaping the encirclement at Jiang, Mao embarked upon the Long March. The Long March first purpose was to escape the KMT, but eventually turned campaign with Mao slogan “Go north to fight the Japanese”. Mao gained the title of chairman of the Politburo. The Long March gives insight to Mao excellent leadership and strategic abilities. Mao took advantage of every moment and used it towards the advancement of the CCP. After the Long March Mao trained the Army and Party cadres, which allowed for a smooth, take over on1949.
During the Communist Revolution Mao aimed at creating a new type of man, through thought control. He set up training periods first meeting in small groups and later in public to confess their guilt, repent, and become cleansed and new determination. The civil war ended in 1949 and the KMT was defeated.
The CCP’s first form of government was the People’s Political Consultative Council founded in September 1949 with 662 delegates. The country was divided in to six regions, with a bureau of military and political authority.
Mao interest in the peasant’s welfare made land reform priority on the new governments
list. The Agrarian Law of 1950 permitted a small cadre to carry on struggle meetings in villages to identify those people who had mistreated peasants. Once identified those persons would be parade before a Peoples Court. The accused were condemned, executed, reeducated or sent to labor camps. The government set up peasant association, which arranged the classification of land by productivity, the confiscation, and the redistribution those chosen to receive it. Landlords or rich peasant would have all or most of their land confiscated. Middle peasant usually kept their land, the poor peasant and the landless farm laborers received an allotment of land. The average allotment given was one third of an acre. The land reform showed the crueler side of the CCP over two millions Chinese died in a five year period under the slave labor system and one and a half million were executed. The land reform was completed in early 1953 but thought control continued. At the cost of three and a half million lives land reforms were to improve the life of the poor and promote loyalty to the new government.
Mao used thought reform to put China on one psychological base, away with “old ideas, habits, custom, and culture.” Several campaigns were organized the Three-Anti was used in 1951 to eliminate corruption, waste, and bureaucratism among those officials who were not Communist. The Five –Anti helped to expose businessmen and the bourgeoisie bribery, tax, defaulting, stealing state property, and benefit from state economic secrets. The Five –Anti permitted the government to control a large amount of private business.
All of society participated in reform. The Thought Reform movement of 1951 required 6,500 professors to take course under Professor Ai Siqi, leader in Chinese Communist Thought. His colleagues whom he would eventually teach Communist learning did not hold Siqi in high regard. Religions reform was placed in the Christian churches it involved the Three- Self-movement: self-government, self-support and self-propagation. Art in literature were used to illustrate Chinas history of the people against their masters. No great emphasis was placed on this use. Mao was more concerned with reorienting the society as a whole. The 1950s Mao was using persuasion that included severe psychological pressures on individuals. Mao used the systems of Self-criticism and criticism by others in small groups. Millions of Chinese were cut off from family and the old familiar. The transformation of these individuals was said to have cleansed them and gave them a new sense of liberation.
The Constitution of 1954 gave more power to the central organs and less to non-Communist. It discontinued the six regional bureaus. Congress transferred public opinion to those in charge. Communist Party controlled the government its official also held a government post. The Party’s Central Committee had 187 members, the Politbur25, and its Standing Committee 7. Mass organizations opened roles for women youth cooperative workers. There was no open policy for membership to the Communist Party; it was a high privilege. Mao visited Moscow in 1949 and signs a 30-year Sino- with Russia for defense against Japan and the US. Russia gave China military aid and technician went to China to aid industrially and Chinese student received training in Russia. China paid for the aid given by Russia. After Stalin’s death China and Russia began to disagree. China saw Russia as a threat to their nuclear installation, growing nationalism on both parts, and the common land frontier. China felt the Russia was abandoning Communism.Russia gave Port Arthur back to China and relingused it joint control of the Manchurian railroad. By 1960 Russia withdrew its technician from China.
The First Five-Year Plan was implemented to pay for Russian aid; maximum returns had to be extracted from China’s basic source, agriculture. Mutual aid teams were organized; tools, animals and labor were pooled. Cooperative were set up and land was purchased form peasant. Cooperatives sold or loaned seeds, purchased the crop, fixed prices sold fertilizer and controlled the whole entire process. The plan was implemented in 1953 by 1956, 90% of farmers were in cooperatives. Industries were forced to implement the same plan. The Phrase “Let a hundred flowers bloom together, let the hundred schools of thought contend.” Demonstrated the discontent with the First Five-Year plan also expressing two different points of view. Mao failed to realize the importance of family to the Chinese.
The Great Leap Forward objective was to bring the Chinese people into a socialist society. China had planned to supercede Britain in steel production. China’s plan to supplement manpower for lack of technology in metallurgy failed. The failure was due to poor direction and inadequate planning. Cooperatives were forced to communes, which separated families. Workers could no longer work private plots. The First Five-Year plan failed to reach its goal. Zhou Enlai admitted to these errors and made changes accordingly. Families were allowed to live together, private plots were reincorporated. Nurseries remained allowing the women to work out the home. Mao retired but he, remained Chairman of the Party still calling most of the shots.
Cultural Revolution began in 1966 Mao allowed student to publish their opinions. Their demands were placed on wall poster and demonstrations were held the student wore red armbands calling themselves Red Guards. Mao believed in revolution and felt it was important for the of youth China to experience rebellion. The students were out of control and Mao was criticized for supporting the uprising. The little red book with quotes from Mao were carried by allow student. Mao failed to realize the impact he students were having on the Party and Chinese citizen. The Red Guards exploded after years communist propaganda.
The Peoples Republic of China was admitted to United Nation in 1971. The United States and China begin its relations with a visit by Richard Nixon. Both parties agreed to resume normal diplomatic when arrangements could be worked out. Lin Biao designated successor of Mao plotted against him and was found out. While fleeing to Russia his planed crashed. Biao was criticized for pretending to be loyal to his country and standing for morality for all, but supported the aristocrats in explotation. Mao died in 1976 of an illness. Mao became the father figure for China.
During the Cultural Revolution1966-1976 Deng distinguished himself as a pragmatist. Deng was purged from office and placed under house arrest. Deng was called “ capital roamer.” Deng was given the task of repairing the damages done during the Cultural Revolution. His first step was to strengthen and stabilize China. In1978 Congress moved to go back to the Constitution of 1954, by doing so Deng secured the Communist rule. This provision gave citizen the rights to speak out free, discuss their views, hold debates and write big character posters. Citizens individual right’s to a defense trial were restored, previously they had been imprisoned to harsh labor camps, medical treatments was ignored or they were executed.ethinic groups were allowed to practice their customs and ways. The most valued provision was citizens to complain about government officials.
Deng sought an overall repair of China’s make up using the Four Modernizations of agriculture, industry, military, and science and technology. In agriculture the Chinese communes were discontinued, and peasants were allowed to lease land and sell harvest in markets. In industry, Ding placed economic zones, to promote foreign investments and new factories were established. Wider roles were opened for Chinese factory workers
Deng realize that if China were to be successful it would have to open in door to foreign technology and ideas. Deng developed closer relationship with Japan. Chinas first open door was a loan from Japan; its duration was five years and amounted to $1.5 billion.
Dengs approach to reforming the military started with reduction in its members. The military members were retrained in discipline weapons training and moral. The military received more advanced military weapons. China purchased weapons from the United States in the years of 1984 –1986. By 1986 China was one of the largest producers of weapons. In the field of science and technology Ding sent several students abroad to the United States to study science and engineering. These students majored in physics radio- electronics, computer sciences and engineering, chemistry, mathematics, and medical and life – sciences. China was looking to modernize it country. Dengs programs produced rapid economic growth, he continued to carry them out under CCP leadership.
In 1987 Deng was the first Communist leader to resign of his own will, he did retain most of his power. Deng resign from his last official post in November 1989. Thanks to Deng China is one of the fastest- growing economies in the world.
After the disintegration of the National Army in mid-1949, Mao declared the establishment of the People’s Republic of China a Communist government. The U.S. role of broker between the Nationalist and CCP was dissolved. The U.S. was against Communism; it dealt with accordingly in its own country during the periods of the “Red Scare.” The U.S. did not recognize Communism. America was watchful of China and felt its ties to Russia were growing. During the Communist take The American Federation of Labor gave estimations that two million Chinese citizen died under the abusive slave labor system, enacted by Mao.
During the Korean War in 1950 President Truman sent the U.S. Seventh Fleet t o prevent Nationalist and Communist from invading each other’s territory. The U. S. was protecting Taiwan from the PRC.
Chinas isolation during Mao rule left little room for foreign affairs, Zhou was responsible for any contact with foreign countries, he had been involved with the spilt from Russia in 1961 and the approach of he U.S. in 1972.The United Stated opposition to China’s admission to the United Nation was strictly on the basis of Communism. But in 1971 President Nixon seeking better relations with China changed his point of view. On October 25, 1971 the China was excepted into the United Nations. In 1972 Nixon visited Peking, and both countries agreed to begin relations as soon as arrangements could be made. The U.S. Foreign Policy through Nixon gave China the opportunity to join the UN and ion many ways open their doors for change.