Archive for July, 2007



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Failure of Tudor Rebellions

The majority of rebellions during Tudor England – 1485-1603 – did not carry out their principal objectives and reasons of this can be harshly classified by category in consequence of the weakness in the rebellion, or of the force of the reigning monarch. For example the poor control of a revolt beside the purely localised […]

16th Century English Weapons

During the 16th century England and much of Europe found itself in turmoil and in a constant state of war.  The outbreak of fighting led to the invention and development of new weapons and the growth and change of weapons of old.  The development of weapons was a trademark of the time, with a sort […]

Newspeak

Newspeak is a name given to the forecoming language of the totalitarian society portrayed in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.  The language itself is a supposed creation by Big Brother, the fictitious political figure made up by the Inner Party – the government of Oceania, INGSOC. The language of Newspeak is the product of diminishing and […]

The History of Electronic Sound and Music

Even 100 Years History of Electronic Instruments before the turn of the century, when the electronic age was still in its infancy, the first attempts to generate sound from electricity had begun.  By 1901, Thaddeus Cadhill had already manufactured the Telharmonium, an electric organ, powered by dynamos and designed to send sound down telephone lines.  […]

Medieval Yarmouth, England

Yarmouth was a town consisting of two major sections, Great and Little Yarmouth. The founder of Yarmouth is believed to be a man named Cedric, who was a Saxon leader, but people still doubt this to this very day. One of the main reasons for the foundation of Yarmouth is the Herring, a fish that […]

Yugoslavia

Recently, there has been much fighting in the former country of Yugoslavia, involving all ethnicities and religious groups and without making a difference between military or civilians. Diplomats have been hard at work to attempt to resolve the differences that led to conflict and bloodshed, but it has proven to be a very difficult thing […]

Women: the Effect of Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution was a great time of change for men, the economy, domestic life, and brought the change in the role of women in society to the forefront. As time evolves, so must the lifestyles we as a society lead. This was no different during the industrial revolution in Britain and France. Throughout this […]

WHY WAS RICHARD III OVERTHROWN?

Richard III reigned for two years, two months and one day.  His reign was over run my rumour and even to this day people see Richard as a tyrant.  One of the rumours that plagued Richard throughout his reign, was that he had murdered his two young nephews. (one of which was Edward V, who […]

Wang T’ao vs Chang Chih-tung

The Opium War in 1839 marked the end of China’s status as an independent civilization.   The Opium War introduced the power of western armies and technology that the Chinese lacked.  The war resulted in foreign intervention and control of Chinese provinces and cities, but it was not until the Taiping rebellion (1850-1864), the most disastrous […]

Weimar Republic

There were various factors that contributed to the failure of the Weimar Republic of Germany and the ascent of Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers Party into power on January 30, 1933. Various conflicting problems were concurrent with the result of a Republic that, from the outset, its first governing body the socialist party (SPD) was […]

Women in Vietnam

Towards the end to the Twentieth century, Vietnam a rapidly changing country goes through a political and social transition, from a socialist to an open market “capitalist type” society.  Since the late 1980’s Vietnam has adjusted it’s economy to compete with the world.  In doing so, the country undergoes many political and social reforms.  Ideals […]

Who Built the Great Pyramid Giza

It’s the oldest and the only surviving of the Seven Wonders of the World.  It is the Great Pyramid of Giza.  It doesn’t need any speculations in reference to the appearance, size, or shape.  It is located in the city of Giza, a necropolis of ancient Memphis, and today it is part of Cairo, Egypt. […]

Western Europe from 400 – 1000 AD

The changes that occurred in Western Europe, from the “Fall of the Roman Empire” until 1000 A.D., transpired in a series of events involving the actions and movements of many peoples across the continent.  This period of history following the Fall and preceding the High Middle Ages was a chaotic time in which an aversion […]

The Treaty of Versailles

In the peace settlement Germany was forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. This was a totally justifiable demand on the part of the victorious powers.   The Treaty of Versailles was enacted into history in June 1919 with Germany forced to accept sole responsibility for causing World War I. Since then […]

Western European Agricultural Advances

Over the course of world history, there have been many factors that have changed the course of Western European history. Two of those main factors were the inventions of the chest harness for the horse and the three-field system of agriculture.   The harness for the horses of the early middle ages was poorly designed […]

Women in 18th Century France

Many changes occurred during the Enlightenment period of the eighteenth century.  For instance, more and more emphasis was placed on the family as the eighteenth century passed.  There were three groups of urban women in eighteenth century, lower-class, middle-class, and upper-class.  This essay will discuss the experiences of the lower and middle class urban women.  […]

Women in Ancient Greece

Women’s role in Greece can be seen when one first begins to do research on the subject.  The subject of women in Greece is coupled with the subject of slaves.  This is the earliest classification of women in Greek society.  Although women were treated differently from city to city the basic premise of that treatment […]

Who Built the Egyptian Pyramids

According to most beliefs, pyramids were built with the help of great armies of slaves, by the ancient pharaohs of Egypt as tombs for preserving their royal bodies. Pyramids were meant to be monuments to the pharaoh’s greatness, filled with great treasures for the afterlife.  There is only one problem with this popular theory, the […]

World War II

Before World War II broke out the world took a backseat ride during HitlerÆs rise to power.  The entire world didnÆt think that he would become as influential as he became.  Hitler achieved his power by relying on the navieness of the world to sit back and allow him to do as he pleased.  The […]

Viking Raids On England

From 793 to 1066, England was terrorised by Viking warriors. These were people from Scandinavia, especially Danmark and Norway. Scandinavia at the time had a growing population and with inland areas inhospitable, the vikngs looked overseas for new territories and wealth.   “In the year 793, the pagans from the north came to Britain like […]

Vietnam War

Before the U.S. went to Vietnam, twelve years before the war started, the French were there, it was their colony.  The French controlled the country.  Northern Vietnam wanted to make their nation Communist as China was probably their influence.  The people of southern Vietnam wanted the opposite. It was a typical tropical climate in Vietnam. […]

Vikings

Who were the Vikings?  The definition of a Viking is “one belonging to the pirate crews from among the Northmen, who plundered the coasts of Europe in the eight, ninth, and tenth centuries.”  Some historical accounts have presented an image of the Vikings as brutal, savage, unfeeling warriors who pillaged and burned with reckless abandon.  […]

Vikings

One of the most interesting and misconceived groups of all time were the Vikings.  The Vikings were the most feared of all the barbaric invaders.  The people who originated from Scandinavia, which in today’s world are the countries of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden were called Norsemen.  The Norsemen who took part in raids along the […]

Vietnam War

Vietnam War, military struggle fought in Vietnam from 1959 to 1975. It began as a determined attempt by Communist guerrillas (the so-called Vietcong) in the South, backed by Communist North Vietnam, to overthrow the government of South Vietnam. The struggle widened into a war between South Vietnam and North Vietnam and ultimately into a limited […]

Versailles

The Treaty of Versailles was intended to be a peace agreement between the Allies and the Germans.  Versailles created political discontent and economic chaos  in Germany.  The Peace Treaty of Versailles represented the results of hostility and revenge and opened the door for a dictator and World War II.   November 11, 1918 marked the […]

US Slavery

When slavery was first practiced in the Americas during the early colonial period, it was purely for economic use. The use of slaves in sugar, tabbaco, and cotton plantations brought a great deal of profit and thus slavery was implemented into the whole system where there was harsh agriculture. These regions were located within the […]

U.S. Foreign Policy in Vietnam

In the history of the United States, our foreign policy has caused many disputes over the proper role in international affairs.  Because of the unique beliefs and ideals by which we live in this country, we feel obligated to act as leaders of the world and help other countries in need.  Therefore, the U.S. has […]

American Involvement In Vietnam, 1968.

Many people wonder how the Americans managed to become involved in a war 10,000 miles away from their native continent, but the initial reasons for U.S. involvement in Vietnam seemed logical and compelling to American leaders. Following its success in World War II, the United States faced the future with confidence. From George Washington’s perspective, […]

Ukrainian Culture

The best way to begin to understand Ukrainian culture is to review early Ukrainian history. This will give us a good step from which to look at traditional Ukrainian culture. Unlike the Russian people, who descended from northern tribes descending from Scandinavia and the far north, Ukrainian history was influenced by southern civilizations such as […]

U.S. Involvement in Nicaragua

Not very many Americans know the truth that lies beneath the U.S.’ involvement in Nicaragua.  Most would be surprised to find out that U.S. armed forces and politicians violated U.S. laws and deliberately sabotaged Nicaragua’s stable government by paying the dictator’s henchmen to kill Nicaraguan citizens.  The United States is considered one of the major […]

US Civil Rights

The struggle for equality for Americans of African descent continues despite significant advances made during the 1950’s and 1960’s.  Since then, African Americans have acquired equality and desegregation.  But these rights have not come easily as there was much hatred and mistreatment by many whites. With the success of the Montgomery boycott, Black leaders charted […]

The Black Death

The Black Death was one of the most severe plagues in its time.  I am going to talk about the Black Death, which is also known as The Black Plague and The Bubonic Plague.  The main area I will cover is What the affects of the Black Plague was and how is spread. The presenting […]

The Roman Identity

The Roman people were a overly proud and highly religious people, whose sense of identity as romans came primarily from their accomplishments in war and their respect of their ancestors.  By examining Livy’s The Early History of Rome, we can identify these traits through roman patterns of behavior and the foundation myths that their nation […]

The Chinese Communist Revolution

During the mid 19th century  many upheavals and rebellions launched China into a new course of modernization. These also lead to the creation of the Chinese Communist party (CCP) which in 1949 over through the government to take all government control.   Mao Zedong Mao was born on December 26 in 1893, in a peasent […]

The Louvre

The Louvre, for hundreds of years, it has been a part of French culture. As a medieval fortress in the beginning, the palace for the King of France, and a museum for the last two centuries, this place has been a milestone for the FreNch. The Louvre has been a piece of history for over […]

The Plague

Camus wrestles with his questions of Existentialism in The Plague through another character as well: Father Paneloux. With Paneloux, Camus attempts to reconcile Existentialism and Christianity. Toward the beginning of the novel, Paneloux is a steadfast Christian. He proclaims in his first great sermon during the epidemic that the plague is God-sent, brought upon the […]

The JMSDF (Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force)

Japan is an island country surrounded by water. This means that the threat to Japan always comes from the sea. Japan also relies heavily on other countries for the supply of natural resources that are indispensable to national existence.  Over 90 percent of imports are transported through sea routes. Taking into account the factors of […]

Trench Warfare

World War I was a military conflict that lasted from 1914 to 1918.  It was a modern war with airplanes, machine guns, and tanks.  However, the commanders often fought World War I as if it were a 19th Century war.  They would march their troops across open land into the face of machine guns and […]

The Berlin Airlift

With the Nazis defeated after World War II, the Western powers finally thought the string of wars was over.  On the contrary, the USSR had other plans for the newly conquered Germany.  Berlin, Germany’s capital, was divided among Great Britain, the United States, France, and Russia.  While this division was intended to keep peace, the […]

The Roswell Incident

The Roswell Incident, which enlightened our minds to the capacity of excepting all, has remained one of the most controversial issues today. In Roswell, New Mexico, 1947, a strange occurrence arises. An alien craft from outer space crashed in an open field. The issue lay still for almost thirty years, until the thought of a […]

The Spanish Armada

The Spanish Armada was a great Spanish fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain in 1588 to invade England.  It was ironically called “Invincible.”  During the late 1500’s, Spain was the major international power over much of the known world (Goldman 1).  Spain’s leader, King Philip II, wanted to conquer the Protestants from England […]

The Trial of Socrates

Socrates is certainly not guilty of the crimes he is accused of.  He is not corrupting the youth of Athens and he does indeed believe in gods.  His manner is uncommon and because of that he is feared by his accusers (Meletus, Anytus, Lycon, et al.).  Justice will be miscarried if he is put to […]

The Asain Finacial Crisis

The beginning of the Asian financial crisis can be traced back to 2 July 1997. That was the day the Thai Government announced a managed float of the Baht and called on the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for ‘technical assistance’. That day the Baht fell around 20 per cent against the $US. This became the […]

Totalitarian Rule

The concept of totalitarian rule cannot be determined by purely logical means. It was explained and clarified only by those who went through the bitter experience of this form of government. As late as the end of the 1920’s the word “totalitarian” was used to designate any state which was governed in an authoritarian rather […]

The Aztec Indians

Tonatiuh has yet to rise from the East and shine upon us all, but already I hear stirs and murmurs coming from the street and even from the apprentice quarters of my own home.  It has been an exhausting month for me and I would like nothing better than to sleep all day.  However, here […]

The Confederate States Of America

Confederate States of America, the name adopted by the federation of 11 slave holding Southern states of the United States that seceded from the Union and were arrayed against the national government during the American Civil War. Immediately after confirmation of the election of Abraham Lincoln as president, the legislature of South Carolina convened.  In […]

The British in India

Initially, when the British attempted to assume control over India, they were met with the outrage of a people wronged. The citizens of India saw the British for what they were, white men with a superiority complex. Every attempt the British made to expand territorial control was met with enthusiastic rebellion. The British succeeded in […]

The Corruption of Power in Rome

Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March in 44 B.C. by the people he trusted and thought were his friends.  The justification for his death was that he was too ambitious and wanted too much power.  The very concept of government in Rome was against dictatorship, to which Caesar posed a great threat. […]

The War of 1812

To many, the War of 1812 is considered the second war for independence.  To me, it is the one of the most unusual wars of all time. During a time period between 1803-1812 British sailors had been tormenting American ships on the high seas.  British captains would eventually take over and capture over 10,000 American […]

The Austro-Prussian War (1866)

One nation.  A single, unified nation powerful enough to plunge Europe and the world into two of the most devastating wars in history.  That is the legacy of Germany.  Two world wars are all we remember of a unified Germany.  But, we never remember the struggle that took place to create such an entity.  As […]

The Fall of Constantinople

On Tuesday, May 29 1453 the last bastion on Christianity in the East, Constantinople, fell to the Ottoman Turks led by Sultan Mehmet ( also called Mahomet ). This ended the 1100 year reign of the Byzantium Empire and gave the Ottomans a new capital. One of the most famous churches in history, the Church […]

The JFK Conspiracy

Is the government really truthful to us – the people?  Government is a really big “organization” with a huge amount of members, and it’s obvious somebody is not telling the truth.  Most of these dishonest events take place in an attempt to cover up any information that the government thinks is not for public eyes, […]

The Victorian Era

The Victorian era produced many eminent figures. Lytton Strachey was one of them. Born in 1880, Strachey was a British biographer and a critic who is credited of having revolutionized the art of writing biography. He opened a new era of biographical writing by adopting an irreverent attitude to the past, especially to the volumes […]

The Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall, built in August of 1961, was a physical symbol of the political and emotional divisions of Germany.   The Wall was built because of a long lasting suspicion among the Soviet Union on one side and Western Europe and the United States on the other. Once World War II was over, these […]

The Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel tower is the trademark of Paris, France.  With the tower being 984ft, it’s kind of hard not to notice it.  The tower has a restaurant, radio and television transmitter and more.  Gustave A. Eiffel created the tower to enter it in the worlds fair.  It was made with wrought iron and had medium […]

The Rise of the USA as a Superpower

The development and use of nuclear power has led to the United States assuming a position as the true World Military Superpower.  The Unites States was the leader in planning, building, testing and actually using the most powerful nuclear weapon known to man.  This country also led the world in relatively safe production of nuclear […]

The Descendent of Homo Sapiens

Since the beginning of human existence, humans have thrived through millions of years on earth, taking advantage of its great resources that were available freely for their personal use and survival.  Toward the end of the 20th centry, these humans realized that they were utilizing large amounts of resources  once thought to be an endless […]

Roman Military

The Roman army was one of the greatest forces of all times. The Roman army ,at its finest point, was nearly inconquerable. This was due to the discipline of the soldiers, the hard and effective training of the soldiers, the speed at wich new tactics were learned, and to theorganization of the soldiers.   From […]

The Treaty of Versaille

“It was neither a vindictive, harsh peace nor a lenient one, desdigned to reconcile.” How far does this description of the Treaty of Versailles explain why it contained the seeds of the Second World War?   In 1919, the major world powers met at the Paris peace conference to determine the fate of Europe at […]

The Battle of Antietam

The Battle of Antietam was fought on September 17, 1862. The United States Army of the Potomac led by General George B. McClellan fought against the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia led by General Robert E. Lee. The battle was fought along the Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. Both of the armies were densely concentrated […]

The Fall of Rome

The Roman Empire was without a doubt the most powerful governing body in the Mediterranean ever. Why did Rome fall? There was not any single cause to the fall of Rome. It was many things occurring in succession to each other.   After the Punic wars with Carthage, Rome acquired many new lands that it […]

Roman Legionaires

The life of a typical Roman Legionaire was a hard one. The combination of brutal training, discipline and organization, and long forced marches with many pounds of equipment all contributed to this, but because of these, the Roman Legions were a force to be reckoned with in the ancient world. The purpose of this website […]

The Tomb of Tutankhamen

What does the tomb of tutankhamen and its contents show about the Egyptian concern for the afterlife?   Tutakhamen’s tomb, and the artifacts inside are an indication of the concern the Ancient Egyptians held for the after-life of their king. In 26th Nov. 1922, the English archaeologist Howard Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of […]

The Evolution of Television

How has television changed over the last 25-50 years? This question can be answered in a variety of different ways ranging from the technological changes and advances it has gone through to the question of whether it has any type of affects on the way people perceive it, or if society is manipulated by what […]

The Titanic

Since 1912, when the Titanic sank on her inaugural voyage, there have been many theories behind the mystery of how this unsinkable ship ended up on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. Up until now, the theory has been that an iceberg tore open a 300-foot gash in the side of the 900 foot-long luxury […]

The Fight for Equal Rights Black Soldiers in the Civil War

Black soldiers were among the bravest of those fighting in the Civil War. Both free Blacks in the Union army and escaped slaves from the South rushed to fight for their freedom and they fought with distinction in many major Civil War battles. Many whites thought Blacks could not be soldiers. They were slaves. They […]

The Meiji Restoration

The Meiji restoration refers to the re-emergence of an emperor in Japan. This change in power came after the fall of the Tokugawa Shogunate, which was caused by the uprising of a group of Samurai who were pro-modernization in Japan. This group, known as the ‘oligarchy’, had seen the modern ‘black ships’ of Commander Perry, […]

The First Battle of Manassas

On a hot summer day in July of 1861 there stood about 30,000 Union troops lead by General Irvin McDowell ready to march out and capture Richmond and end the war.  For the troops were young volunteers and thought that the battle would only last one day.  But they were wrong for the battle of […]

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world, and some Western historians have noted that it’s architectural beauty has never been surpassed.  The Taj Mahal is the most beautiful monument built by the Mughals, the Muslim rulers of India.  Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble.  Its stunning architectural […]

The Ethics of World Domination

Throughout the past 70 years the U.S. has been involved in hundreds of conflicts all around the globe.  Every time the United States troops are deployed to a foreign country, citizens of the U.S. want to know why. People begin to ask questions like, “what is the purpose of this?” or “what is the nature […]

Titanic

When people hear the name Titanic many vivid and emotional images come to mind.  Visions of the very last yet frantic final moments titanic spent afloat before sinking to its watery grave miles below the surface.  No one however pictures everything that had happened before and after the great liner sank, or the passengers and […]

The Beginning of the End for the Postal Monopoly

The Postal Service has been a government agency since 1775, and since 1872 it has been illegal for anyone but government employees to deliver a letter. Because of this and many other reasons, the USPS is a prevalent example of a government-controlled monopoly. The United States Postal Service is the largest postal service in the […]

The Spanish Armada

On May 30, 1588, they left the Port of Lisbon confident and assured of victory. If they would succeed in victory and conquer the enemy, then they would be the sole world power. If they win they will be victors of the biggest battle the world has ever seen. The Spanish Armada, the biggest invading […]

The Panama Canal

The Panama Canal was one of the greatest accomplishments by mankind, in my opinion.  Among the great peaceful endeavors of mankind that have contributed significantly to progress in the world, the construction of the Canal stands as an awe-inspiring achievement.  The idea of a path between North and South America is older than their names. […]

The Magnificence of Ramses II

The history of Ancient Egypt consisted of a number of very powerful rulers known as pharaohs.  These pharaohs were regarded as gods by the Egyptian people.  Every aspect of daily Egyptian life including the weather, and the success of the crops, was supposedly controlled by the pharaohs’ attitude.  Many Egyptians would devote their entire lives […]

San Francisco 1906 Earthquake

One of the greatest earthquakes happened in 20th century is in San Francisco in year 1906. It measured 7.8 degrees.  Many building were destructed and several hundred of people got killed.  The earthquake also started a fire, which destroyed the central business district.   The earthquake happened on the San Andreas Fault, which is the […]

Stonehenge

Stonehenge is one of the worlds best known monuments of the ancient times.  Stonehenge stood for over five thousand years, and still we do not know the full use of this mysterious arrangement of stones.  Stonehenge remains asan ancient monument that still propose mysteries to it origin and purpose.   At first, scientists had no […]

Salt and Iron debate during the Han dynasty

Emperor Wu-ti began his reign in 140 BC. During its early years he was under the moderating influence of relatives and court officials; however, by the late 130s he had decided that the essentially defensive foreign policy of his predecessors was not going to solve his foreign problems. In 133 he launched attacks on the […]

South Africa-Segregation

Discrimination against nonwhites was inherent in South African society from the earliest days.  Since the British settled in South Africa in 1795 there has been social, economic, and political exclusion, being ruled by whites despite the fact that whites held about 10% of the population. (Msft. Encarta)  Segregation and inequality between whites and other races […]

Submarine Warfare in World War 1

The First “World War,” also known as the Great War, took place after the turn of the century from 1914 to 1918, and was named this because it was the first conflict of global proportions. The war resulted in the loss of military lives and the near destruction of Europe.    The massive destruction of the […]

The Stock Market Crashes of 1929 and 1987

The stock market crash of 1929 occurred over a period of time that was the beginning of what is called the Great Depression. Everyone wanted to invest their money in the stock market. People thought that the stock market was the perfect place to make money. The Stock Market Crash began on Oct. 24,1929 as […]

Shipwrecks

Archeologists found 3 shipwrecks that show the different stages of shipwreck building and how they tried to improve in cost and in labor. Archeologists describe the different cargos, and possible explanations on how it was sunk. The archeologist also built scale models of the ship and also tries to build the original ships back and […]

Seven Causes For Industrialism

There are several causes of industrialism. Furthermore, there are different interpretations for each causes¹ apparent worth. Below, I will attempt to describe my opinions about the importance for each cause for the seven causes of industrialism.   The United States of America is a very large, and lucky country.  We have fertile farm lands on […]

Survival in Auschwitz

In the History of the world there have been few incidences of atrocities that equal the treatment of the Jews in Europe during World War II.   It is difficult to accept the levels of systematic cruelty and terror experienced during this period. In the book Survival in Auschwitz, Primo Levi paints a picture with disturbing […]

Stonehenge

Stonehenge, one of the great Seven Wonders of the World, but what do we really know about it.  What was its purpose, how was it built and by whom.  Many different answers come up when asking the question “What was the purpose of Stonehenge”, some say that it was a horrid place, which the Druids […]

South Africa’s Struggles

Throughout Earth’s history imperialism has done more harm that good, to the smaller overpowered territories.   The greater more dominant nation would use and exploit the people and the land for their own use without much concern to the devastation it is causing to the land and the society of these territories.  The native people of […]

The Salem Witchcraft Trials

The Salem Witchcraft trials in Massachusetts during 1692 resulted in nineteen innocent men and women being hanged, one man pressed to death, and in the deaths of more than seventeen who died in jail. It all began at the end of 1691 when a few girls in the town began to experiment with magic by […]

Science in the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century probably did more to shape life in the modern industrialized world than any event in history.  There were many events that led to the industrial revolution in Europe.  For starters, people in general were becoming more and more disenchanted with corruption in the Church.  Due to advances in […]

The Stirling Engine

Robert Stirling invented the Stirling engine in 1816. At the time he was a Scottish minister. Stirling engines were the safest engines made during that time period that would not explode like a steam engine could. The Stirling engine would not explode because the pressures could not be elevated to that to such a high […]

Space History

Exploration; to travel in a little-known region for discovery, as defined by Webster. Since the age of the Greeks, Anglo-Saxons have been interested in space exploration.  From Copernicus to Gaileo to Newton, space has been looked upon with adoring eyes.  Space has been regarded time after time as the final frontier.  That was until 1957, […]

Space Exploration

Since the beginning of time, man has been fascinated with the stars and sky.  From the time the first man took his first step on the moon, space exploration has been growing and expanding.  More and more people are coming up with new ways on how to study the universe.  Hence, the more time spent […]

Slavery: Then and Now

When we think about slavery many things come to our mind.  There are many different ways one can describe slavery. If you were to look it up in a dictionary it would say that a slave is “one who is owned and forced into service by another,” this was the definition given in the Webster’s […]

Stalin

Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili was an unkown man in the small town of Gori, Georgia.  After years of revoulutionary activity and many times exiled to Siberia, he changed his name.  A name that would threaten the Germans, ally with the Americans, and help the North Koreans.  A name that came from the Russian word for steel, […]

Roman Entertainment

“Bathing, wine, and Venus wear out the soul but are the real stuff of life.” (Proverb in Sparta, A History of Private Life from Pagan Rome to Byzantium, 183)  Civilizations of Ancient Rome and modern day are similar because entertainment is an important part of life.  In Ancient Rome, the rich and the poor could […]

Roman Law

Romans did not have very complicated laws but when they were broken there was very heavy punishment.  Roman laws influenced most of the laws we have now and most of the laws of other countries. America’s court system was modeled around the Roman court system.  They had upper courts and lower courts and that was […]

Roman History

Roman Republican politicians were drawn largely from an ancient elite of wealthy families.  These families, known as the nobility, dominated access to the consulships; between them they held over 80% of the consulships in the last century of the Republic.  Active politics took place within this framework, and was characterised largely by personal and political […]

Russian Communism: Leninism and Stalinizm is what?

The specter is haunting Europe—the specter of communism… So what is this specter called communism and how haunting is it really? The Webster’s Dictionary says that communism is a system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party. Karl […]

Russian Revolutions of 1917

The abdication of Emperor Nicholas II in March 1917, in conjunction with the establishment of a provisional government based on Western principles of constitutional liberalism, and the seizure of power by the Bolsheviks in November, are the political focal points of the Russian Revolutions of 1917. The events of that momentous year must also be […]

Rise of American Empire

The American Empire started taking shape when the U.S. started enforcing the Monroe Doctrine in 1895, to assert its control over Latin America. America was just starting to build a navy that could compete with other world powers. It wouldn’t have the chance to show off these powers until the Spanish-American War. America was outraged  […]

Rasputin

Grigory (or Gregory) Rasputin is without question one of the most sensational figures in Russian history. This mystic from Siberia arrived in St. Petersburg in 1911 and within a few years had become one of the most influential men in government. His ability to remain in such a high position despite widely publicized periods of […]